Over the past 25 years, altogether more than a 1000 km of pipeline with Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA) have been successfully applied for carrying wet, corrosive oil and gas product streams providing an outstanding service record.
Still there is a growing demand for CRA Lined Pipe due to the fact that corrosive conditions will increase significantly in the future as the produced fluids will contain higher water cuts and greater concentrations of hydrogen sulphide H2S and carbon dioxide CO2. In addition, these increasingly corrosive products need to be transported over longer distances and with higher pressures, yet in a reliable and environmentally benign way.
Considering operating expenditures over the pipeline design life versus capital expenditure costs, CRA lined pipe is a very interesting solution for preventing corrosion related problems, if a suitable corrosion resistant material for the respective service condition is selected.
Owing to a lack of supply capability for CRA-pipes, however, which is partly due to the limited capacities of semi-finished CRA clad materials (i.e. hot roll-, weld-overlay and explosive bonding) potential exploration projects will be jeopardized.
The paper will give an introduction into the state-of-the-art processes to produce CRA clad and lined pipe, introducing BERG-LAY®, the new, innovative and patented way of manufacturing CRA rolled lined steel pipes based on flat plate materials.
This manufacturing process for mechanically bonded CRA Lined Steel Pipe is based on two separate plates, i.e. usually carbon steel to meet the pressure loads as backing material and CRA to suit the corrosion resistance, and offers several competitive advantages:
- A virtually unlimited range of materials can be combined - The applied process has no limitations due to mismatching material properties, i.e. mainly yield strengths
- Lower costs due to use of sheet metal instead of metallurgical bonded materials or pipes as semi-finished product material at the beginning of the manufacturing process
- Short “order to market”-time frame due to better availability of sheet metal
- Pipe diameters available ranging from 16 to 100 inches, pipe lengths random up to 40 feet