In the area of large transport pipelines, ship loading plants and similar plants the sudden change of flow velocities caused by defective valves or pump circuits may occasion excessive pressure rises. Such pressure surges may be very drastic owing to the kinetic energy within the medium in motion and they may jeopardise the operational safety of the entire plant.
The presentation pays special attention to preventing and/or attenuating pressure surges in transportation pipelines for liquids, since these dangerously come too close to the theoretic Joukowski model.
To keep the plant independent in any critical situation that may be caused by a drastically changing flow velocity, focus is laid on self-energised pipeline valves that generate the necessary control forces from the medium itself.
The presentation gives an overview of the various possibilities of pressure surge attenuation to maintain the operational safety of the pipeline network. In this context the most important procedures of protecting pipeline networks against pressure surges will be introduced.
Various valve types, such as vacuum breakers, bleeding/venting valves and pressure surge relief valves provide an excellent solution to the mentioned problems. Their functional principles are presented and discussed.