The lecture is going to present a general overview of the Brazilian Pipeline System and the major actual challenges for the pipeline industry focusing on the onshore Natural Gas Pipeline Activity from a pipeline operator’s view. Transpetro is the logistic company of the Brazilian Government Oil and Gas Company, Petrobras, and deals with transportation of oil, byproducts and natural gas by pipelines and tankers. Since the beginning of the oil industry’s activity (about 1860 in The USA) the search for new technologies to increase the profits is a great challenge but also complying the specific regulation to avoid failures and accidents is a driven for new twchnologies. The great goal for this industry is the constant search for zero leakage. Initiatives and research projects intend to block the great threats that could cause pipeline failures. The most likely threats to Natural Gas pipeline activity are third party damage, corrosion and material or construction defects. The integrity program is the great solution to the search for this “zero leakage” goal. The development of pigging techniques associated with third party prevention programs, fluid quality assurance, cathodic protection monitoring programs and leak detection softwares have assured a constant reduction in leak statistics. The main message is that the pipeline industry still needs technological initiatives to meet the demands of industrial economical feasibility and pursue the zero leakage goal.