Significant carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from hydrocarbon producing industry can be achieved through increased efficiency, moving to another type of fuel or through Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). The CCS option is currently considered as ultimate approach to achieve net zero carbon emission, as it permanently stores the CO2 in a dedicated reservoir. The key parameter for the successful CCS is CO2 transportation. CO2 can be transported as gas, liquid, or as super critical/dense phase, either by shipping or by pipelines. Currently the most efficient method to transport the CO2 from the producing field to the storage site is through pipeline. Mostly the pipeline transporting CO2 are onshore pipeline. Vast amount of track record and experience in onshore pipeline. However, few dedicated long distance CO2 injection pipelines are operating offshore. Thus the experience is limited. Most of the design criteria, installation methodology, failure mode and other risk element are also different compared to onshore pipeline. This paper presents the challenge in designing long distance CO2 injection pipeline Malaysia, from one of offshore gas producing field as CO2 capture site to injection site at another offshore decommissioned gas producing reservoir. Several key aspects of design will be described, such as the pipeline design concept, design and operating envelope, pipeline route selection (including geophysical and geohazard mitigation), corrosion assessment, running ductile fracture propagation. Several lessons learned and best practice encountered during the design will also be included. It is expected that conclusion and recommendation from this case study can become reference in performing good practice in designing offshore CO2 injection pipeline.
Challenge in Offshore CO2 Pipeline Design: A Case Study of Offshore Carbon Capture and Storage in Malaysia
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