Domino effects in pipeline corridors
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In the Netherlands, about 18000 kilometres of transmission pipelines with natural gas, oil products and chemicals have been constructed in the last five decades. It becomes more and more difficult to plan and construct new pipelines efficiently in a densely populated country as the Netherlands. To ensure that in future times new transmission pipelines can be constructed and operated efficiently, pipeline corridors are set up. The width of these corridors is such that new pipelines can be constructed and maintained without disturbing adjacent pipelines or cables. However, for about 80 of pipeline corridor the width is however not sufficient large to prevent domino effects between pipelines. Due to the presence of dwellings or the plans to build them, the width of pipeline corridors is limited to several tens of meters Domino effects are defined as the escalation of effects due to the failure of a pipeline, resulting in the failure of a second adjacent pipeline with more severe consequences. In cooperation with Dutch pipeline operators, an investigation is set-up in which it is explored which initiating events can result in -domino effects. The initiating events involve overpressure effects due to physical explosion, heat radiation effects as a result of a pool fire or a jet fire, strong temperature drops as result of the release of a saturated liquid and bending of the second pipeline as a result of crater formation or earth removal. The physical models and damage models describing domino effects are studied and knowledge gaps are identified. In describing domino effects a distinction is made between models available for gasses, liquids and saturated liquids for both the initiating pipeline as the receiving pipeline. Measures available to minimise the possibility of a domino effect are also investigated. Finally, the incorporation of domino effect in risk analyses is discussed.
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