Geographical Distribution of Oil and Natural Gas Deposits - Different Means of Transportation to the Consumption Centers

Proceedings Publication Date:

01 Sep 2016
Hilmar Rempel
Hydrocarbons - oil and gas - are at present the most important energy fuels. Together they accounts for more than 60 % of world-wide total primary energy supply. International Energy Agencies (e.g. IEA 2005) predict a further increase of oil and gas demand. There is a geographical mismatch between resource location and demand that will continue to increase in the future. By these reasons role of transport will rise. Pipeline Transport is an important option.

About 70 % of global conventional oil and natural gas reserves are concentrated inside a so called “Strategic Ellipse” stretching from Middle East to the North of West Siberia. Main consuming regions for in 2004 were North America, Austral-Asia, and Europe, for natural gas North America, CIS and Europe.

About 2,200 Mt (million tons) of crude oil (57 % of global production) was transported across country boundaries in 2004, in part over large distances by tanker or pipeline. Main export region was Middle East followed by Africa and CIS. The share of pipeline transport in the cross border trade achieved about 14 % of traded volumes.

Cross-border trade (not including transit across third countries) of natural gas amounted in 2004 to about 780 G.m³ (billion m³) or about 28 % of global production. About three fourth of this amount was traded by pipeline, about one fourth as liquefied natural gas (LNG).

To secure supply with oil and gas is needed to build new pipelines linking producing and consuming countries. There are several major projects.

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