Instantaneous velocity gradients in fluids induce pressure surges, which are propagating with speed of sound. In particular, the magnitude of the pressure surges depends on the fluid type (e.g. density, viscosity, speed of sound) , pipe material properties and topology, and the value of velocity change. Pressure surges can compromise plant safety.Pressure surges are a dynamic and complex physical phenomenon. Simplified and short-cut methods are either inadequate (e.g. Bernoulli equation) or often inefficient (e.g. Joukowsky’s “waterhammer“ equation). Instead, numeric computer simulations are required in order to predict, evaluate, mitigate critical system conditions, and to attain structural integrity of pipe systems at efficient, yet safe process operations. These computer simulations are implemented in Flomaster® (PDEs; conservation of mass, energy, inertia; CFD; fluid system topology).
In doing so, transient operational events are simulated (e.g. controller or block valve actions; changes in operation points of fluid machinery; rapid, extended changes in supply and consumer volume flows; other operational events (leakage, cavitation, external fire, etc.)) and principal project risks with respect to schedule and budget are continuously quantified along the project and plant lifecycle.
Siemens project methodology emphasizes providing project context by means of cooperating jointly with other disciplines (process, safety, piping, structural, mechanical, E&A, etc.). Siemens experts stimulate and orchestrate engineering, modelling & simulation, software, and IT knowledge and the intensive collaboration with the project owner/client.
Relevant applications comprise fluid dynamic verification of engineering, operational and functional safety, elaboration of planned and future operation scenarios (e.g. new materials like H2, biogas, CO2 or integration of FSRUs).